CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD SECURITY
Biotechnical Faculty of the University of Montenegro
Climate change is one of the most pressing challenges facing humanity in the Anthropocene era. It is widely admitted that climate change will have far-reaching impacts including on food security. Therefore, this review paper analyses the multifaceted relations between climate change and food security. In particular, the paper explores the impacts of climate change on the four dimensions of food security (i.e. food availability, food access, food utilization, stability). It draws upon a review of scholarly literature indexed in the Web of Science. The analysis of the literature shows that there is a dual relationship between climate change and food security; on the one hand, climate change affects all the dimensions of food security and, on the other hand, the quest for food security has implications in terms of climate change. As for food availability and supply, climate change is widely believed to reduce crop yields and livestock productivity especially in the countries of the Global South. Effects on food production and availability as well as the impacts of extreme climate events affect both food physical and economic accessibility. The changes in production systems induced by climate change may induce changes in dietary patterns and food utilization. Climate change will also affect the stability and resilience of food systems with consequences in terms of long-term food security. Moreover, the quest for food security, through agricultural intensification and agricultural land expansion, increases greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and land use changes. The intricate relation between climate change and food security makes the case for integrated policies that maximise co-benefits while addressing trade-offs. That is fundamental to make sure that ‘climate action’ will not jeopardize the achievement of ‘zero hunger’ and vice-versa.
Climate change, food security, food availability, food access, food utilisation, food system, agriculture