Suppurative Thrombosis of the Portal Vein (Pylephlebits): A Systematic Review of Literature
Suppurative portal vein thrombosis (pylephlebitis) is an uncommon condition usually associated with an intra-abdominal infection or inflammatory process. In this study, we aimed to synthesize data on previously published cases according to the PRISMA guidelines. A total of 103 patients were included. Patients were more commonly male (71.8%) and had a mean age of 49 years. The most common infection associated with pylephlebitis was diverticulitis (n = 29, 28.2%), and Escherichia coli was the most isolated pathogen (n = 21, 20.4%). Blood cultures were positive in 64 cases (62.1%). The most common site of thrombosis was the main portal vein (PV) in 59 patients (57.3%), followed by the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) in 40 patients (38.8%) and the right branch of the PV in 30 patients (29.1%). Sepsis developed in 60 patients (58.3%). The mortality rate in our review was 8.7%, and independent risk factors for mortality were the presence of pertinent comorbidities (OR 5.5, p = 0.02), positive blood cultures (OR 2.2, p = 0.02), and sepsis (OR 17.2, p = 0.049).
pylephlebitis; portal vein thrombosis; suppurative thrombosis of portal vein