Morbilli Epidemic in Sarajevo Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina 2019: A Review of Hospitalized Children with Measles at the Pediatric Clinic

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Scientific Foundation SPIROSKI, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
BACKGROUND: Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by morbillivirus which usually affects young children. Once thought to have been eradicated, measles continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. AIM: The purpose of this research is to analyze the risk factors and clinical characteristics of children hospitalized at the Pediatric Clinic under the diagnosis of measles during the epidemic in Sarajevo Canton 2019. METHOD: We applied a retrospective analysis of medical histories of 23 patients who were hospitalized under the diagnosis of measles at the Pediatric Clinic of the Clinical Center in Sarajevo from January to June 2019. We divided patients into two groups: Infants and children over one year of age. We diagnosed measles clinically, or through the serum IgM ELISA test for measles virus. RESULTS: A total of 23 patients, aged 1 month to 14 years, were hospitalized at the Pediatric Clinic, accounting for 3.5% of the total number of the diseased children. The largest numbers of hospitalized patients were infants 9 (39.1%). Comorbidities were present in 9 (39.1%) subjects, and the most common complication was bronchopneumonia, present in as many as half of the infants. There were four patients who needed mechanical ventilation (17.39%); three of whom were infants; and two lethal outcomes (8.69%), both in infancy. CONCLUSION: Responsible behavior of parents, health professionals, and society as a whole can prevent the far-reaching consequences of non-vaccination. Infants are critically endangered, as the most sensitive part of population, especially if the collective immunity is impaired.
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Epidemics, Vaccines, Morbilivirus, Infants