Consumption of Antibiotics in Primary Care Setting before and during COVID-19 Pandemic in Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina

The pandemic of COVID-19 has brought many changes in health care systems at all levels of health care. The increase in the number of cases of COVID-19 has led to overuse and misuse of antibiotics.The aim of this study was to compare the consumption of antibiotics for systemic use in outpatients in the Republic of Srpska (RS), before and during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the association between antibiotic consumption and the rate of incidence and mortality of COVID-19. The total consumption of the antibiotics for systemic use (J01) in outpatients in the Republic of Srpska during 2019 was 19.40 DDD/TID, with an increase to 30.80 DDD/TID in 2020.Significantly higher use of penicillin (10.58 11.01 DDD/TID in 2019 vs. 17.10 13.63 DDD/TID in 2020), cephalosporins (2.68 1.90 DDD/TID in 2019 vs. 5.93 2.77 DDD/TID in 2020) and macrolides (2.14 2.22 DDD/TID in 2019 vs. 3.40 3.44 DDD/TID in 2020) was observed during the pandemic period. It is necessary to improve the prescribing practice of antibiotics at the primary health care level, public awareness about rational use of antibiotics, as well as the current antibiotic stewardship programs and control their implementation.
Кључне речи
outpatient antibiotic consumption; COVID-19; antimicrobial management; mortality