Effects of the fixed orthodontic therapy on biochemical and microbiological parameters of saliva

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Serbian Medical Association
Introduction/Objective Malocclusions are one of the most frequent disorders in dentistry, and pose a risk for the onset of caries and periodontal diseases. Fixed orthodontic treatment solves the problem of malocclusions; however, it requires simultaneous cooperation of the patients, parents, and dentists involved. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of fixed orthodontic therapy on the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria in saliva, the pH value, and buffering capacity of saliva. Methods The research was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine in Foča, Department of Dentistry. The study included 100 respondents, aged 13 to 17 years. The respondents were divided into two groups: the study group (respondents wearing fixed braces) and the control group (respondents not subjected to fixed braces therapy). Saliva samples were taken from the respondents four, 12, and 18 weeks after the start of the orthodontic therapy. The study used the bacteria caries risk test (CRT) and CRT buffer (Ivoclar Vivadent). Results The study showed an increased number of bacteria in saliva of the respondents during all three follow-up periods (χ2 test, p = 0.001). The largest numbers of the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria were found in week 12 of the therapy. Saliva pH value and buffering capacity of saliva increased statistically significantly in week 12 of the therapy (χ2 test, p = 0.001). Conclusion Oral conditions in patients changed during the fixed orthodontic therapy: the number of bacteria increased, the pH value and buffering capacity of saliva changed. It was necessary to use preventive measures in order to avoid complications during the fixed orthodontic appliances therapy.
Кључне речи
malocclusion; Streptococcus mutans; bacteria