Model for Risk Calculation and Reliability Comparison of Level Crossings
There is not a single country in the world that is so rich that it can remove all level crossings or provide their denivelation in order to absolutely avoid the possibility of accidents at the intersections of railways and road traffic. In the Republic of Serbia alone, the largest number of accidents occur at passive crossings, which make up three-quarters of the total number of crossings. Therefore, it is necessary to constantly find solutions to the problem of priorities when choosing level crossings where it is necessary to raise the level of security, primarily by analyzing the risk and reliability at all level crossings. This paper presents a model that enables this. The calculation of the maximal risk of a level crossing is achieved under the conditions of generating the maximum entropy in the virtual operating mode. The basis of the model is a heterogeneous queuing system. Maximum entropy is based on the mandatory application of an exponential distribution. The system is Markovian and is solved by a standard analytical concept. The basic input parameters for the calculation of the maximal risk are the geometric characteristics of the level crossing and the intensities and structure of the flows of road and railway vehicles. The real risk is based on statistical records of accidents and flow intensities. The exact reliability of the level crossing is calculated from the ratio of real and maximal risk, which enables their further comparison in order to raise the level of safety, and that is the basic idea of this paper.
risk; reliability; level crossings; queueing theory; accident; entropy