Examining the Effects of the Destroying Ammunition, Mines and Explosive Devices on the Presence of HeavyMetals in Soil of Open Detonation Pit; Part 2: Determination of Heavy Metal Fractions
As a result of the destruction of ammunition, mines, and explosive devices by the method of open detonation, the increased concentration of heavy metals is often recorded in the soil of military polygons, which is a serious ecological problem. However, in order to determine the potential risk of such locations to the environment, it is necessary to determine, in addition to the total content, the forms in which the metals are present. In this paper, a sequential extraction method was used to analyze the six fractions of five heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, copper, and zinc) in the soil of the polygon for destruction of ammunition, mines, and explosive devices. Samples were collected from the place of direct detonation (so-called pits) and from the edge of the pit. The aim of this research is determination of metal speciation in order to obtain a better insight in their mobility and risk arising from this. The results showed that heavy metals are predominantly present in the residual, oxide, and organic fractions. Cd and Cu were also significantly present in the mobile fractions due to conducted activities on the polygon. To assess the potential environmental risk of soil, the risk assessment code (RAC) and individual (ICF) and global (GCF) contamination factors were used. According to the RAC, the mobility and bioavailability of the analyzed heavy metals decreases in the following order: Cd > Cu > Zn > Pb > Ni. ICF results show low to moderate risk, while GCF results show low risk in terms of heavy metal contamination in the examined area.
Open detonation . Heavy metals . Sequential extraction . Risk assessment