Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Orange Peel Using Olive Oil and Its Encapsulation in Ca-Alginate Beads
The paper was aimed at developing an ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids from orange peel using olive oil as a solvent. A central composite design was used to define the optimal conditions for their extraction. Under the optimal conditions (extraction time of 35 min, extraction temperature of 42 °C, and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 15 mL/g), the experimental and predicted values of carotenoid content were 1.85 and 1.83 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively. The agreement of these values indicated the adequacy of the proposed regression model. The extraction temperature only had a negative influence on carotenoid content. The impact of extraction parameters on the carotenoid content was decreased according to the following order: extraction time, liquid-to-solid ratio, and extraction temperature. Ca-alginate beads were prepared using the extrusion process to increase the stability and protect the antioxidant activity of olive oil enriched with carotenoids. The encapsulation efficiency and particle mean diameter were 89.5% and 0.78 mm, respectively. The presence of oil extract in Ca-alginate beads was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity of the oil enriched with carotenoids before and after encapsulation in the alginate beads was determined according to the DPPH assay.
extraction; carotenoids; alginate; beads; encapsulation; antioxidant activity