The Effect of Stabilisation Agents on the Immunomodulatory Properties of Gold Nanoparticles Obtained by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been investigated extensively as drug carriers in tumour immunotherapy in combinationwith photothermal therapy. For this purpose, GNPs should be stabilised in biological fluids. The goal of this study was to examine how stabilisation agents influence cytotoxicity andimmune response in vitro. SphericalGNPs, 20 nmin size, werepreparedbyultrasonic spraypyrolysis (USP). Three types of stabilising agents were used: sodium citrate (SC), polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP), and poly-ethylene glycol (PEG). Pristine, non-stabilised GNPs were used as a control. The culture models were mouse L929 cells, B16F10 melanoma cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), obtained from healthy donors. Control SC- and PEG-GNPs were non-cytotoxic at concentrations (range 1–100 g/mL), in contrast to PVP-GNPs, which were cytotoxic at higher concentrations. Control GNPs inhibited the production of IFN-U slightly, and augmented the production of IL-10 by PHA-stimulated PBMNC cultures. PEG-GNPs inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF- ) and Th1-related cytokines (IFN-U and IL-12p70), and increased the production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5). SC-PEG inhibited the production of IL-8 and IL-17A. In contrast, PVP-GNPs stimulated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Th1 cytokines, and IL-17A, but also IL-10. When uptake of GNPs by monocytes/macrophages in PBMNC cultures was analysed, the ingestion of PEG- GNPs was significantly lower compared to SC- and PVP-GNPs. In conclusion, stabilisation agents modulate biocompatibility and immune response significantly, so their adequate choice for preparation of GNPs is an important factor when considering the use of GNPs for application in vivo.
gold nanoparticles; stabilisation agent; cytotoxicity; immune response; cytokines