High Prevalence of Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease in Balkan Endemic Nephropathy Foci
Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of the most frequent risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the prevalence of urinary abnormalities in adult inhabitants of three Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) villages near Bijeljina, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The survey consisted of an interview, blood pressure measurement, and urine dipstick test for proteinuria, hematuria, and glycosuria. Results: The study involved 1625 (739 males, aged 51 ± 16 years) subjects: 319 (19.6%) with positive family history for BEN, 585 (36%) with hypertension, 604 (37.2%) above 60 years, 146 (9%) with diabetes, and 566 (34.8%) with none of these risk factors. Proteinuria was present in 6.2–7.1% of the subjects with risk factors for CKD but in 3.4% of those without risk factors. Systolic blood pressure and BEN in brother/sister were found to be significant variables associated with proteinuria, but female gender and history of kidney disease with hematuria. Conclusion: In addition to a family burden for BEN, other risk factors for CKD were highly prevalent in BEN villages of the Bijeljina municipality. The frequency of proteinuria was higher in the at-risk group than in the group without risk factors and increased with the number of risk factors.
risk factors for CKD, Balkan endemic nephropathy foci