Plasma-Activated Medium Potentiates the Immunogenicity of Tumor Cell Lysates for Dendritic Cell-Based Cancer Vaccines

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Autologous dendritic cells (DCs)-based vaccines are considered quite promising for cancer immunotherapy due to their exquisite potential to induce tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells. However, a lack of efficient protocols for inducing immunogenic tumor antigens limits the efficacy of DC-based cancer vaccines. Here, we found that a plasma-activated medium (PAM) induces immunogenic cell death (ICD) in tumor cells but not in an immortalized L929 cell line or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PAM induced an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), autophagy, apoptosis, and necrosis in a concentration-dependent manner. The tumor lysates prepared after PAM treatment displayed increased immunogenicity in a model of DCs, compared to the lysates prepared by a standard freezing/thawing method. Mature DCs loaded with PAM lysates showed an increased maturation potential, as estimated by their increased expression of CD83, CD86, CD40, IL-12/IL-10 production, and attenuated PDL1 and ILT-4 expression, compared to the DCs treated with control tumor lysates. Moreover, in co-culture with allogeneic T cells, DCs loaded with PAM-lysates increased the proportion of cytotoxic IFN- + granzyme A+CD8+ T cells and IL-17A-producing T cells and preserved the Th1 response. In contrast, control tumor lysates-treated DCs increased the frequency of Th2 (CD4+IL-4+), CD4, and CD8 regulatory T cell subtypes, none of which was observed with DCs loaded with PAM-lysates. Cumulatively, these results suggest that the novel method for preparing immunogenic tumor lysates with PAM could be suitable for improved DC-based immunotherapy of cancer patients
Кључне речи
plasma activated medium; dendritic cells; tumor vaccines; Th polarization