Fecal Galectin-3: A New Promising Biomarker for Severity and Progression of Colorectal Carcinoma
Background and objectives: The aim of the study was to determine systemic and fecal values of galectin-3 and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients with CRC and the relationship with clinicopathological aspects. Methods: Concentrations of galectin-3, TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-10, and IL-1β were analyzed in samples of blood and stool of 60 patients with CRC. Results: Systemic concentration of TNF-α was significantly lower in patients with severe diseases (advanced TNM stage, nuclear grade, and poor histological differentiation) as in patients with more progressive CRC (lymph and blood vessel invasion, presence of metastasis). Fecal values of anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-β and IL-10 were increased in patients with severe stadium of CRC. Fecal concentration of Gal-3 was enhanced in CRC patients with higher nuclear grade, poor tumor tissue differentiation, advanced TNM stage, and metastatic disease. Gal-3/TNF-α ratio in sera and feces had a higher trend in patients with severe and advanced diseases. Positive correlation between fecal Gal-3 and disease severity, tumor progression, and biomarkers AFP and CEA, respectively, was also observed. Conclusions: Predomination of Gal-3 in patients with advanced diseases may implicate on its role in limiting ongoing proinflammatory processes. The fecal values of Gal-3 can be used as a valuable marker for CRC severity and progression.